The diagnosis in Ayurveda is basically a two-fold approach
(1) Rogi-pareeksha (Examination of the patient) &
(2) Roga -pareeksha (Examination of the disease)
The Rogi- pareeksha or Dasavidha pareeksha – (clinical examination) this is essentially concerned with ascertaining the constitution ( prakriti), status of health and vitality of the individual. This is achieved through tenfold examinations of the patient comprising of (1) constitution (prakriti) (2) disease susceptibility (vikriti), (3)essence (sara),(4) compactness (samhanana), (5) anthropometry (pramana), (6) compatibility (satmya), (7) mind (sattwa), (8) digestive capacity of food (aharasakti), (9) physical strength (vyayamasakti) and (10) age (vaya).
(2) Roga -pareeksha (Examination of the disease) There are different methods to follow in roga pareeksha or diagnosing the disease in Ayurveda. The general examination is made through popular eight types of examination of patient (ashtasthana pareeksha) comprising examination of pulse (nadi), urine (mootra), faeces(mala), tongue (jihva), voice (shabda), touch (sparsha), eye/vision (drik) and stature (akriti) and also considering the state of pathways of internal transport systems (srotas) and digestive fire (agni).
The treatment in Ayurveda system is holistic and individualized in nature mainly:-
Swasthasya Swastha Rakhanam, Aaturachavikarprashmanam cha
It bears two components i.e., Preventive and Curative.
The preventive aspect of Ayurveda includes personal hygiene, regular exercise, daily & seasonal regime and appropriate social behavior whereas the curative treatment consists of three major constituents, Ahara (diet), Vihara (lifestyle) and Oushadha (medication).
The ideal treatment according to Ayurveda is one, which cures the disease without causing adverse effect. The rational ayurveda treatment is carried out in any or all four components or Arm. They are (1) Dosha pacifying therapy (samsamana), and (2) Bio-cleansing therapy (samsodhana or panchakarma) (3) Avoiding causative factors (nidana parivarjana) and (4) Dietetics (pathya vyavastha).